Among Hungarians, PTA was 33

Among Hungarians, PTA was 33.8% [6]. organ transplantation, and patients with less than one year from your transplantation. Results The study showed that 39.5% of the patients were anaemic. Univariate analysis showed that late PTA is significantly associated with not using Erythropoietin (EPO) in the pre-transplant period (p = 0.001), history of rejection (p = 0.003), longer time from transplantation (p = Encainide HCl 0.015), and eGFR (p 0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that eGFR (p = 0.001) and not use of EPO in the pre transplant period (p BMP4 0.001) are strong predictors of Encainide HCl PTA. The use of Angiotensin transforming enzyme inhibitors/Angiotensin receptors blockers (ACEI/ARB), immunosuppressive treatments, presence or absence of co-morbidities, donor type and donor age are not significantly associated with late PTA. Conclusion The study concluded that late PTA is common and under recognized. Risk factors for late PTA include renal dysfunction, history of rejection, longer duration of transplantation and not using EPO in the pre-transplant period. Renal dysfunction and not using EPO in the pre-transplant period are major predictors of late PTA. strong class=”kwd-title” Keywords: Sudan, Post transplant anaemia, Erythropoietin Background Anaemia in End Stage Renal Failure (ESRF) is mainly due to loss of the endocrine function of the kidneys that lead to deficiency of erythropoietin (EPO) and development of anaemia. Many studies pointed out the prevalence of Post transplant Anaemia (PTA) in developed countries, a Japanese study concluded that the prevalence of PTA is 20% [1], a big multicenter study conducted in 72 centers in 16 European countries [Transplant European Survey on Anaemia Management (TRESAM)] concluded that the prevalence of PTA was 38.6% [2]. In a published British study, the prevalence of anaemia was 53% at 12 months from the kidney transplantation [3]. A Turkish study concluded that prevalence of PTA was 49.3% [4], in Austria PTA was present in 39.7% [5]. Among Hungarians, PTA was 33.8% [6]. Renal dysfunction is strongly associated with development of PTA [2, 7-18] and considered as a major risk factor, other risk factors like rejection [9,19,20], recent infections [21-24], longer duration from transplantation [7], immunosuppressive treatments [3,25-32], use of Encainide HCl Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/Angiotensin receptors blockers (ACEI/ARB) [2,12,13,33,34], low serum albumin [4], protein energy waste syndrome [35], and old age of the kidney donor [2] are all considered as risk factors for development of PTA. Our aim in this study is to identify the prevalence of late PTA ( 1 year post transplant) and the risk factors of late PTA among adult Sudanese kidney recipients. Methods Study population & Data collection This study is a cross sectional hospital base analytic study. The subjects of the study are all kidney transplanted recipients following in the transplant referral clinics at Ahmed Gassim, Selma & Ibn Sina Hospitals, Khartoum/Sudan. All patients attending the transplant referral clinics between (1/8/2010 – 1/9/2010) were interviewed by questionnaire focusing on personal and clinical data exploring (time on dialysis, receiving EPO treatment during dialysis, period of transplantation, donor age, immunosuppressive regimen, The use of ACEI/ARB, history of rejection, and presence or absence of co-morbidities) with a review of their medical files. All laboratory investigations conducted at the time of the visit such as (complete blood count, peripheral blood picture, and renal functions) were reported. Estimated Glomerular Filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the abbreviated modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) study formula [36]. The research was in compliance of the declaration of Helsinki and approved by ethics and research committees in the local hospitals, an informed consent was obtained from each patient participated in the study Haemoglobin target Anaemia was defined as Hb levels of 13 g/dl for male patients and 12 g/dl for female patients this targets were selected based on the WHO guidelines & the American Society of Transplantation [37]. Inclusion & exclusion criteria We included all kidney transplant recipients who received a kidney transplant and attended the referral clinic at Ahmed Gassim, Selma and Ibn Sina Hospitals between 1/8 -1/9/2010. The exclusion criteria were.