born. Introduction is usually a ubiquitous organism and is one of the most common parasites that infect humans. Each 12 months in the United States, is responsible for approximately one million infections,1 thousands of cases of encephalitis and systemic disease in immunosuppressed persons,2 thousands of cases of retinochoroiditis from contamination after birth affecting vision,1 and hundreds to thousands of cases BI 2536 of congenital disease in infants that can lead to neurological sequalae or retinochoroiditis.3 In addition, infection has been repeatedly found to be associated with mental illnesses, including schizophrenia, self-harm, and bipolar BI 2536 depression, although the evidence is not yet sufficient to imply a causal relationship.4C8 Periodically, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) assessments serum samples from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for antibodies to estimate the prevalence of infection in the United States. Once infected, people generally retain a chronic contamination, particularly in the cells of the muscles and brain. This chronic form of the organism (bradyzoites in cysts) is usually intracellular and cannot be eradicated by currently available medications. Antibodies to are thought to persist for life in infected persons. In this work, we report the antibody prevalence in the United States from samples collected in the NHANES in 2009C2010. Previous assessments of antibody prevalence were done in the NHANES III (1988C1994) and the NHANES 1999C2004.9,10 The antibody prevalence reported in this work will be compared with those found in these previous seroprevalence studies. Materials and Methods The NHANES is usually a cross-sectional survey conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), CDC and is based on a stratified, multistage cluster design from which a sample representative of the civilian, non-institutionalized U.S. populace is usually drawn. The NHANES collects information on a variety of health steps and conditions through household interviews, physical examinations, and collection of blood samples in mobile examination centers. Since 1999, data have been collected and released in 2-12 months cycles. Non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, and persons 60 years of age and older were oversampled in NHANES 2009C2010 to ensure adequate sample sizes for these groups. Descriptions of the survey design and sampling methods have been published elsewhere. 11 The NHANES surveys were reviewed and approved by the NCHS Research Ethics Review Board and included written consent.12 Surplus serum samples collected in the NHANES 2009C2010 for sampled persons 6 years of age and older were tested for antibodies at the CDC’s Parasitic Diseases Serology Laboratory in 2013. Primary analyses for NHANES 2009C2010 were conducted on those tested age 6 years and older. For comparisons across all three survey periods (NHANES III [1988C1994], NHANES 1999C2004, and NHANES 2009C2010), serologic data on was available only for those 12C49 years of age. BI 2536 Data among women of childbearing age (those 15C44 years of age) were also available and analyzed for all three survey periods. In NHANES 2009C2010, seroprevalence was calculated for the total population and by age groups (6C11, 12C19, 20C29, 30C39, 40C49, 50C59, 60C69, and 70 + years). Age-adjusted seroprevalence was compared across demographic and socio-economic subgroups that included gender, race, and Hispanic origin based on the respondents’ self-assessment and categorized as non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American; subjects who did not self-select into these three groups were classified as other, which included all non-Mexican American Hispanics and individuals reporting multiple races, and were only included when all racial/ethnic groups were combined in analyses for the total population, Rabbit Polyclonal to FOLR1 birth place (U.S. versus non-U.S. birth), poverty index (calculated by.