Cutadapt removes adapter sequences from high-throughput sequencing reads

Cutadapt removes adapter sequences from high-throughput sequencing reads. sequences were confirmed by restriction analyses and Southern blot hybridization, as well as by PCR amplification and sequencing of the mutated genome region (results not demonstrated). Infectious PrV was rescued after transfection (FuGene HD reagent; Promega) of rabbit kidney (RK13) cells with BAC DNA. Open in a separate windows FIG 1 (A) Physical map of the PrV-Ka genome comprising unique (UL and US) and inverted repeat (IR and TR) sequences. BamHI restriction sites and fragments, as well as the insertion of a bacterial vector and of an EGFP reporter gene cassette in the gG gene locus in pPrV-gGG (24), are indicated. (B) An enlarged section shows the boundary between UL and IR with the open reading frames of the regulatory proteins EP0 and IE180. Viral mRNAs and the spliced large latency transcript (LLT) are indicated by dotted arrows. Recognized miRNAs (22, 23) are demonstrated as arrowheads numbered from Rabbit polyclonal to AnnexinA1 1 to 11 (related to miRNA genes from prv-mir-LLT1 to prv-mir-LLT11). In pPrV-miRN, the majority of the miRNA genes were deleted and replaced by selection markers (RpsL and KanR) utilized for BAC PIK-93 mutagenesis in animal experiment was authorized by an independent honest committee (7221.3-1.1-016/12). Fifteen 60-day-old pigs (German Landrace) were utilized for experimental illness. Animals were housed in the PIK-93 biosafety level 3 (BSL3) facility of the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Germany, and tested for the absence of PrV antibodies prior to the start of the experiment. Three groups of five animals each were infected intranasally with 105 PFU of PIK-93 pPrV-gGG (animal no. WT 54 to 58) or pPrV-miRN (animal no. M 49 to 53) or were mock infected (control group; animal no. C 21 to 25). The pigs were allowed to recover during the following 62 days to ensure the establishment of latency. During this time, pigs were monitored for medical symptoms. In order to check for computer virus shedding, nose swabs were collected every 2 days after illness until computer virus excretion ceased. Blood samples were collected at 4, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, and 62 days postinfection (p.i.) using a V-trough device. The sponsor antibody response was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using PrV gB as the antigen. DNA samples from nose swabs were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR focusing on the gB gene (28). Animals were slaughtered at 62 days p.i. Trigeminal ganglia were excised, rinsed with ice-cold physiological saline answer, frozen in liquid nitrogen within 30 min after excision, and stored at ?80C until processed. Nucleic acid extraction and purification. Total RNAs from infected PK15 cells were extracted using QIAzol reagent and purified with an RNeasy minikit according to the manufacturer’s instructions (Qiagen). Frozen trigeminal ganglia were homogenized in ice-cold TRIzol reagent using an Ultra-Turrax (IKA). RNA extraction was performed PIK-93 according to the manufacturer’s instructions (Invitrogen). Genomic DNA was acquired upon phase PIK-93 separation for RNA extraction by adding a back extraction buffer comprising 4 M guanidine thiocyanate, 50 mM sodium citrate, and 1 M Tris, pH 8.0 (free foundation), to the interphase-organic-phase combination. After centrifugation at 12,000 for 15 min at 4C, the top aqueous phase comprising DNA was transferred to a clean tube and DNA was precipitated by adding 0.8 volumes of isopropanol per 1 ml of TRIzol, followed by centrifugation at 12,000 for 5 min at 4C and pellet washing with 75% ethanol. Yields and purity of nucleic acids were measured having a NanoDrop ND-1000 spectrophotometer. To remove undesirable residual DNA, all RNA samples were treated with TURBO DNase (Ambion). PK15 RNAs were treated.